Common Types of Pneumonia during Pregnancy

Depending on the nature of its transmission, pneumonia can be classified into many categories. The general forms of pneumonia significantly visible in pregnant women are given below:

Bacterial Pneumonia:

Bacterial pneumonia is the most common pneumonia in both pregnant and non-pregnant women. Bacterial pneumonia make pregnancy more complicated 1 in 600 pregnancy cases. This type of pneumonia may be arising due to more incidences of women with chronic diseases becoming pregnant. Bacteria normally reach the lungs by aspiration or inhalation and originates from a bacteria carried by someone. The bacteria that cause this include streptococcus pneumonia, mycoplasma pneumonia and haemophilus influenza. These bacteria normally live in the upper respiratory tract. These bacteria can be known as “atypical” because pneumonia caused by these organisms might have somewhat different symptoms, respond to different antibiotics than the typical bacteria that cause pneumonia appears different on a chest X-ray. Even though these infections are not uncommon and are called “atypical”. Bacterial pneumonia can develop after you’ve had a viral cold or the flu or occur on its own. The people those at greatest risk for bacterial pneumonia include people who have weakened immune systems, people with respiratory disease or viral infection and people recovering from surgery. Symptoms include chills, fever, fast breathing, and shortness of breath, fatigue and chest pain.

Viral Pneumonia

Viruses are the second most common cause of pneumonia. Viruses that infect the upper respiratory tract may also responsible for pneumonia. The same viruses that bring on colds and flu cause the viral pneumonia. The most common viral pneumonia is influenza and varicella. The influenza virus is the most common reason of viral pneumonia in adults. Viral pneumonia caused by the influenza virus can be dangerous and sometimes life threatening. Influenza more aggressively spread during pregnancy than bacterial pneumonia. With a mortality rate of 10 percent in pregnant and also non pregnant women, varicella pneumonia is the more serious condition of the Viral Pneumonia. Varicella can also be increase the risk of preterm delivery.

Viral pneumonia can become more serious if the pregnant woman also contracts bacterial pneumonia.  This combination often leads to death. Clinically viral pneumonia is somewhat hard to differentiate from bacterial pneumonia because symptoms are similar in both cases. Most viral pneumonias are not severe and last only a shorter time than bacterial pneumonia in most patients. The virus approaches the lungs and multiplies rapidly. This pneumonia is most serious in pregnant women and people who have pre-existing heart or lung disease. The risks of viral pneumonia further complicated by a secondary invasion of bacteria, exhibits all the typical symptoms of bacterial pneumonia.

Fungal Pneumonia

This type of pneumonia is less common cause of pneumonia, and it is primarily due to a fungal called ‘coccidioidomycosis’ and it normally occur in patients who are severely immunocompromised, especially in those with AIDS. The fungal pneumonia spreads by breathing in tiny particles called fungal spores. It can affect immunity and stimulate effect on progesterone in the affected women. This pneumonia has a mortality rate of 25 percent. It symptoms include, fever, dry cough, anorexia and dyspnea. People in certain activities such as farmers, landscapers and gardeners are more likely to come into contact with such pneumonia.

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Health Risks of Primary Ovarian Insufficiency (POI)

Health Risks of Primary Ovarian Insufficiency (POI)

As women with POI have lower levels of certain hormones, several health problems are more common than in women without POI, including:

  • Infertility: Women suffering from POI, generally unable to get pregnant naturally. They may carry a pregnancy but, in most cases, adonor eggsare required.
  • Heart disease: Low estrogen level early in life can affect the muscles lining the arteries and can increase the formation of cholesterol in the arteries. These factors can increase the risk of atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries) which increases the risk of heart attacks further.
  • Anxiety and depression: Hormonal changes caused by POI can result to anxiety or lead to depression. Many women with POI may feel sadness about their unexpected loss of ovarian function. Women with POI should discusses their feelings with their family members, medical provider and may need to discuss with a qualified therapist.
  • Dry eye syndrome and eye surface disease: Some women with POI can have one of these eye diseases. Both diseases can cause discomfort and may lead to blurred vision. These conditions can cause permanent eye damage, if not treated seriously.
  • Osteoporosis: The hormone estrogen required to keep bones strong. Women with POI often develop osteoporosis without enough estrogen. It is a bone disease that increase the risk of weak bone, brittle bones or bone loss and fractures.
  • Low thyroid function: This health problem also is known as hypothyroidism. The thyroid is a gland that produces hormones that control body’s metabolism and energy level. Low levels thyroid hormones can affect your metabolism and can result in very low energy, mental flatness and other similar symptoms.

How is POI diagnosed?

if you are younger than 40 and have irregular periods or stopped having irregular ones, immediately consult with your doctor to find the root causes of the ongoing problem. To diagnose POI, your health care provider may perform:

  • A medical history: Your health care provider may ask whether you have relatives with POI or other health conditions such as an autoimmune disease, endocrine problems or a neurological condition.
  • A pregnancy test: A test can be done to make sure that you are not pregnant.
  • A physical examination: To look for signs of other disorders which could be causing your symptoms.
  • A pelvic ultrasound: An ultrasound may be used to check whether or not the ovaries are enlarged or have multiple follicles.
  • Blood tests: A blood test has been done to check for certain hormone levels. With this test your health care provider (HCP) can find out if your ovaries are working properly or not and to check the level of FSH (Follicle Stimulating Hormone) in your blood. This blood test can be repeated before the diagnosis can be made.High levels of FSH usually indicate presence of POI. Other hormones including an “AMH” (Anti-Mullerian Hormone) can be evaluated and genetic tests may be done to check if there is a medical reason for the Primary Ovarian Insufficiency (POI). Other blood test can be done to do a chromosome analysis. A chromosome is the part of a cell that contains genetic information.

Some specific tests should also be performed to check for autoimmune conditions or possible genetic that might be related to the ovarian insufficiency.

How is infertility diagnosed in Male?

Traditionally infertility has been considered as a woman’s problem, but it is found that one out of every three cases of infertility is associated with man. A diagnosis of male infertility can be one of the toughest situations a man can have.Not being able to father a child can make a man feel like he is the culprit of his partner to not able to bear a child.

A man’s fertility generally associated with the quantity and quality of his sperm.If the number of sperms a man ejaculates is of a poor quality or low, it will very be difficult and sometimes impossible for him to become a dad. A male infertility diagnosis includes a medical history, physical, general hormone tests, more semen analyses and some other more laboratory tests.

How is infertility diagnosed in Male

Medical History

Questions related to Medical History may include:

  • A discussion of related to your past medical history, any chronic health problems, any inherited conditions and injuries or surgeries that could affect fertility. Your doctor might also discuss things related to your sexual development during puberty and your sexual habits.
  • Your doctor may ask questions about your family history of infertility or birth defects.
  • A discussion that may involve information regarding social history and occupational hazards to find out any potential exposure to dangerous substances that could have a bad impact on your fertility.

Physical Examination

Questions related to physical examinationmay include:

  • This includes physical examining your genitals and the evaluation of the pelvic organs like, testes, penis, scrotum and prostate.

Laboratory Tests

Laboratory Tests may include:

  • Semen Evaluation: A doctor may ask for the sample of semen for further evaluation. Semen samples can be collected in different way.You can be asked to provide the sample by masturbating and ejaculating into a special container at the clinic itself. But due to some cultural or religious beliefs, some prefer other alternative method way for the sample. In this case the semen can be collected in to a special condom during intercourse. The semen is then sent to a laboratory for the evaluation of sperm motility or movement, maturity and shape of the sperm, the volume of the ejaculate and the actual sperm count and the liquidity of the ejaculate. The lab will also perform the tests for the signs of problems such as infections related to your semen. If your sperm analysis found to be normal, your doctor will likely go for the testing of your female partner before conducting any further male infertility tests.
  • Hormone testing: Hormones produced by the pituitary gland, hypothalamus and testicles may be evaluated to check levels of testosterone and FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone) to determine the overall balance of the hormonal system and specific state of sperm production in your body. Abnormalities in other hormonal or organ systems also might increase the chance of infertility. Serum LH and prolactin are other hormonal tests that may be evaluated if initial testing indicates the need for them.
  • Hormone testing: There could be a genetic cause, if concentration of your sperm is extremely low. A blood test can check whether there are significant changes in the Y chromosome(signs of a genetic abnormality). Genetic testing might be considered to diagnose various inherited, congenital syndromes or chromosome abnormalities, that may cause the lack of sperm or lead to developmental problems of infertility.
  • Anti-Sperm Antibodies: Some male can produce abnormal antibodies that obstruct the sperm on the way to the egg, which prevent your partner from getting pregnant. For such male, making sperm isn’t the real issue. It is getting the sperm where they need to go. Male with these problems have normal sperm in their testicles, but the sperm in semen are either abnormal, missing or in low numbers.There are several other reasons exist the male might have low sperm in their semen even if his body makes enough of it. A medical examination can also be performed to check these problems and to identify the presence of antibodies that may contribute to infertility.
  • Scrotal ultrasound: An ultrasound of the man’s scrotum performed to detect varicoceles (varicose veins) or duct obstructions in the prostate, seminal vesicles, scrotum and ejaculatory ducts. A transrectal ultrasound also closely looks at the vesicles and ejaculatory ducts that transfer semen.
  • Post ejaculatory urinalysis: This test performed to check for the presence of sperm in a man’s urine indicating retrograde ejaculation.
  • Hypo-osmotic swelling: This a laboratory test that uses a special sugar and salt solution to evaluate the ability of the sperm to penetrate the egg and the sperm’s tail. The tails of healthy sperm supposed to swell in the solution as compared with dead or abnormal sperm where the tails do not swell.
  • Acrosome reaction: A laboratory test that helps to find out if sperm heads are able to go through the chemical changes which is very important to dissolve an egg’s tough outer shell.
  • Sperm agglutination: A laboratory test involving the examination of sperm under a microscope to evaluate if the sperm are bundling together. Bundling prevents sperm from swimming through the cervical mucus.
  • Sperm penetration assay: A laboratory test uses hamster eggs to evaluate a sperm’s capability of penetrating the egg. Although this test is rarely used.
  • Acrosome reaction: A laboratory performed to check and determine if sperm heads are able to go through the chemical changes requisite to dissolve an egg’s tough outer shell.
  • Vasography: This is an x-ray exam which is used to determine if there is blockage or leakage of sperm in the vas deferens.
  • Hemizona assay: It is a laboratory test in which a non-usable human egg is cut in half. The main purpose of this test is to check if the sperm are able to penetrate the outermost protective layer of the egg.
  • Kruger and World Health Organization (WHO) Morphology: This is performed to evaluate sperm shape and features more closely.
  • Seminal Fructose Test: This test is performed to identify if fructose is being added properly to the semen by the seminal vesicles. Infertility diagnosed in Female

Erectile Dysfunction

Erectile dysfunction or ED is the most common sex problem affect men sexual heath. It affects approximately 30 million men worldwide. ED is defined as trouble getting or keeping the inability to achieve or sustain an erection suitable for sexual intercourse. It can be caused mainly due to chronic illnesses, poor blood flow to the penis (or blood flow in the penis is limited with harmed nerves), medications, drinking too much alcohol, stress or emotional reasons or being too tired. Although, it’s not rare for a man to have some types of erections problems from time to time. It can cause stress, contribute to relationship problems and affect your self-confidence.

ED that is occurring routinely with sex or progressive is not normal and it should be treated. It can also be a risk factor for heart disease and a sign of an underlying health condition that require treatments. Men who have a problem with their sexual health may be reluctant to discuss with their doctor, seeing it can be an embarrassing issue. Consult your doctor without wasting your time, even if you’re embarrassed. Sometimes, treating ED on time is enough to reverse its bad effects. In other cases, your doctor may prescribe medications or other direct treatments.


Erectile dysfunction symptoms might include, trouble getting and keeping an erection that is firm enough for sex and relatively reduced sexual desire. Your doctor or an Urologist can help, if ED becomes a routine and bothersome problem for you. It also can be a primary warning sign of cardiovascular disease indicating the presence of blockages in a man’s vascular system. Some studies have shown that men suffering from ED are at significant risk of getting a stroke, heart attack or circulatory problems in the legs. It also can cause low self-esteem and depression.


Male sexual stimulation is a complex process that involves the brain, emotions, hormones, nerves, blood vessels and muscles. Problem with any of these can results an erectile dysfunction. Moreover, mental health concerns and stress can also cause or worsen erectile dysfunction. Sometimes a combination of physical and psychological issues can results in erectile dysfunction. For example, a minor physical condition that slows your sexual behaviour might cause anxiety about maintaining an erection. The resulting anxiety can sometimes lead to or worsen erectile dysfunction.

High blood pressure, Parkinson’s disease, treatments for prostate disease, injuries in the pelvic area or spinal cord, hormonal disorders including thyroid conditions and testosterone deficiency and surgical complications can also be the other caused of ED.


The best way to avoid erectile dysfunction is to manage any existing health conditions and adopt healthy lifestyle choices. For its prevention:

  • Manage your any existing diseases like heart disease, diabetes or other chronic health conditions.
  • Limit or avoid your alcohol consumption, stop smoking and never use illegal drugs.
  • Visit your health specialist for regular checkups and medical screening tests.
  • Work toward reducing stress.
  • Include exercise in your daily routine.
  • See your health specialist for depression, anxiety or other mental health concerns.

Advantages of the EmbryoScope – Overview

Advantages of the EmbryoScope – Overview

EmbyroScope is an innovative time-lapse technology used to maintain the essential physiological conditions required by a living embryo while they are in the IVF laboratory.It has an integrated time lapse system that has a camera that continuously monitor and analyze the development of embryos and captures images and records them as a video for further use.The specially designed Embryoscope combines an incubator, high resolution camera, built-in microscope and computer software to automatically take several images of the embryos up to every 7 minutes.The time-lapse videos of individual embryos are recorded while at the same time the other embryos keep undisturbed in their stable culture environment.Advanced software allows the embryologist to select the best available single embryo in their stable culture environment with the highest chance of leading to a pregnancy and baby.

Advantages of the EmbryoScope

Advantages of the EmbryoScope

  • Embryoscope supports incredible stable conditions for embryo development by providing an undisturbed culture environment same like those in the human body.
  • It improves embryo selection and de-selection criteria by providing accurate and in-depth information to the embryologists together with the stable and undisturbed culture environment, in order to select embryos with the highest chance of success.
  • It allows an Embryologists to analyze at embryos without taking them out of the incubator which significantly decrease potential stress that may encountered by the embryos.
  • The Embryoscope can be helpful for the improvement IVF success rates. The single selected embryo with highest development potential allows high pregnancy rates including lowering the risks associated with multiple pregnancy.
  • It provides detailed information about the embryo development steps which is not available using a conventional microscope.
  • The selection of embryos with the help of Embryoscope image information has the potential to significantly reduce the miscarriage rates compared with standard methods.
  • With the help of an Embryoscope, an Embryologists can study and analyze more than 7200 minutes of an embryo’s development compared with the standard methods with 6-10 minutes.
  • It provides the parents information about the embryo development and a film record of the medical development of their future child.

Results of Embryoscope

Embryoscope eliminate the need for removing the embryo from the incubator, which ultimately increases the probability of pregnancy chances as there is no need to handle the embryo.It has been found that embryos which follow specific division times and certain appropriate morphological changes have a much better chance of implantation.The chances of implantation are higher in cases in which the selection of embryo done by using Embryoscope technology.

The Embryoscope can be very helpful for the patient undergoing an assisted reproduction treatment. It is a remarkable fact that, the chances of desirable results are higher for patients who have selected more than one embryo, where the best one or two embryos are selected further for the assisted reproduction treatment. However, the stable culture conditions offered by the Embryoscope are likely to be a positive point to all type of patients.

You may contact Dr. Shivani Sachdev Gour for your any EmbryoScope related questions. She is recognized as one of the best gynecologists and infertility specialist based in Delhi.